Inter-state arbitration is one of the oldest dispute resolution mechanisms in international relations. It has been gaining popularity in recent years in the face of a changing geopolitical landscape.
Since the parties in public international arbitrations are typically states and other subjects of public international law, the disputes differ substantially from that between commercial entities. The majority of recent inter-state arbitrations have dealt with territorial disputes over land and sea, and maritime conflicts. Cases have also been initiated in matters of diplomatic protection and state responsibility, environmental disputes and in conflicts between states and other subjects of international law.